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eh AIBRIS ose ASUCACES

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2022 with funding from University of Alberta Libraries

https://archive.org/details/Bristowe1982

Pee Mov tore Wii OR TAL B ECR TCA RELEASE FORM

NAME OF AUTHOR Lucille Bristowe

eee LESS Effects of Stress Management Training on Children

DEGREE FOR WHICH THESIS WAS PRESENTED Master of Education

YEAR THIS DEGREE GRANTED 1982

Permission is hereby granted to THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA LIBRARY to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private,

scholarly or scientific research purposes only.

The author reserves other publication rights, and neither the thesis nor extensive extracts from it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the author's

written permission. |

5 ae

DATED .. 1B) ee ae O82 G

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EFFECTS OF STRESS MANAGEMENT TRAINING ON CHILDREN

by

Lucille Bristowe

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

EDMONTON, ALBERTA

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OMICS Tesi,

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FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

The undersigned certify that they have read, and recommend to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, for acceptance a thesis entitled EFFECTS OF STRESS MANAGEMENT TRAINING ON CHILDREN submitted by Lucille Bristowe in -partial fulfilment of the requirements for the

degree of Master of Education in Counseling Psychology.

It's supposed to be a secret, but I'll tell you anyway. We doctors do nothing.

We only encourage the doctor within.

- Albert Schweitzer

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ABSTRACT

This study was based on the premise that there are children within any school system who could benefit from a program designed to help children deal with the everyday stresses in their lives, both from a preventive and a corrective perspective. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate two stress management programs, Peace Harmony and Awareness and Kiddie QR, which are both designed for children, to assess their possible value as part of a counseling and/or affective health program within the schools. The specific purpose was _ to determine if the two programs were comparable in achieving their goal. A subsidiary purpose was to determine if there is a relationship between manifest anxiety and self-esteem. The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale and the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory were used as both pre and post treatment measures.

The sample consisted of thirty-six grade two children from one elementary school within the Edmonton Public School System. The children were randomly divided into three groups: two treatment and one control group.

It was hypothesized that: the treatment groups would show greater decrease in manifest anxiety and greater increase in self-esteem than the control group; that gains in experimental groups one and two would be similar; and that there would be a relationship between manifest anxiety and self-esteem.

Data Analysis confirmed the relationship between manifest anxiety and self-esteem, but significant differences were not found when the

two experimental groups were compared with the control group.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my appreciation to my _ supervisor, Dr. John Paterson, whose assistance enabled me to pursue those areas of interest to me. I would also like to thank Dr. Geo Fitzsimmons for his valuable input into the planning of my thesis, and Dr. Ken Ward who

served as the other committee member.

A thank you is also extended to Dr. J. Battle, Dr. T. Macguire

and Dr. E. Romaniuk for their assistance and suggestions.

I am grateful to the Edmonton Public School Board and the staff and students at Bannerman Elementary School, whose cooperation made

this study possible.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter

I INTRODUCTION

The Problem

Purpose

Definitions

Overview of the Study

oa ATEORETICAL SUPPORT

The Nervous System

The Stress Response Fight~or-F laght General Adaptive Syndrome Summary

Relaxation Progressive Relaxation Autogenic Training and Visualization Meditation and the Relaxation Response Summary

Mind-Body Interaction Ponesis Dysponesis Summary

Why Relax? Awareness The Effects of Imagery Emotional Release Mind-Body Quieting Functional Disorders Summary

Theoretical Summary

TTI REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Investigation of Relaxation

Training with Elementary School Children

The Treatment Programs Peace Harmony and Awareness Kiddie QR

The Instruments

Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale

Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory

vii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTINUED

Chapter

IV PROCEDURE AND DESIGN

The Study Treatment Instruments Sample

Research Design

Procedure Prior to the Study Facilities Instrumentation

Treatment Peace Harmony and Awareness Kiddie QR

Fol low-up

Delayed Treatment for Controls Teacher and Parent Evaluation Limitations and Assumptions

Hypotheses Data Analysis

Summary

VERE SUL DS

Hypothesis #1 Hypothesis #2 Hypothesis #3 Hypothesis #4 Summary of Results

VI DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS

The Study

Discussion Treatment Programs The Instruments Teacher and Parental Feedback

Implications for School Use Implications for Further Research

viii

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101 103

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Chapter

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDICES

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTINUED

Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale

Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory

Peace Harmony and Awareness

Kiddie QR

Letter to Parents - permission

Letter to Parents - post-study feedback

Teacher Evaluations

1X

Page

105

110

3

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120

War 124

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TS OR ABLES

Table

] ANOVA - Pre-post Mean Difference Scores: Manifest Anxiety

2 ANOVA - Pre-post Mean Difference Scores: Self-Esteem

5 Difference Scores - between pre and post test means

Page

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page ] Success Model 6

Z Pathways of Ponetic Signaling 42

XI

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

In an elementary classroom, that could be anywhere, a young boy Sits quietly at his desk, staring out the window, completely oblivious to all that is happening around him within the classroom. He seems to be unaware also, of the things to see outside, for he's not really looking at them. He was aware this morning though, that the red and white T-shirt he has on, the one with the three big holes in front, is the same T-shirt he wears everyday. He just finds it by himself in the morning. It's always there - right beside the running shoes that pinch his growing feet.

Today should have been a good day: for at his house last night, it was his turn to sleep in the only bed. It should have been a good day. But last night didn't turn out the way it was supposed to; nor did it again this morning, at his house - before he left for school. And as he sits and stares, he is completely unaware, as any little boy would be, of the effects that his hungry tummy, lack of sleep, and sad unhappy feelings are having on his body.

There are many such little children in all our classrooms. They may not be so obvious, but they're there.

Stress is an everyday fact of life for all, and the school setting is no exception (Lupin, 1977). According to Selye (1974) stress cannot and should not be avoided, but should be used productively to enhance our lives. Too much stress if improperly handled leads to

distress with resulting tension and anxiety. "Tension is necessary to

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accomplish many tasks but unproductive tension, like driving with the brakes on, can distort and eventually damage tissues of the body even if pain is not present" (Payne & Reitano, 1977, p.III-5). Spielberger (1975) noted that what is common in anxiety is its lack of referents, and its projection to the future. "What concerns us here is the extent of 'dis-ease' in the community" (p.5). He further noted that to define anxiety is difficult. "Although anxiety is the most pervasive psychological phenomenon of our time...there has been little or no agreement on its definition" (p.118). Banks (1978-b) supports the pervasiveness and unpleasantness of anxiety:

The brother of anxiety is worry....Worry and

anxiety go together....It is the most common

Sickness in the world....no one escapes

(p.24)....Worry is an emotional attitude

accompanied by unpleasantness....It is the

product of prolonged’ frustration, doubt,

conflict, and chronic anxiety rooted in fear

Sy eee A tension is present, and unreduced, in unsolved conflicts and frustrations for which there is no immediate adaptive behavior. Worry itself is a form of adjustment; not a constructive one, but an attempt nevertheless.

Suroebel (Ul9SU0)ossaid of his childhood, “As a kid...1 worried

about my worries, and in retrospect this made everything even worse. I privately thought I was the only kid with those worries" (p.2). Kids are told ‘don't worry about it'. However, Stroebel concluded:

But kids do worry about it! I asked a six year

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RidSwC WORRY eto VES merc dS ee WON) aah) Come 1S eenlOL uncommon for children to have fears and worries (pi).

As a medical doctor, Stroebel (1980) has estimated that up to 70%

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of all medical complaints are stress related disorders: related to peoples inability to manage the many distresses in their lives. Sour attitudes towards life may produce physical discomfort. They cause tenseness, anger, and unhappiness. Misunderstandings arise from tired minds and tired bodies with both adults and children. "We over react and try to justify our behavior by claiming we're sorry, not sure what's the matter, that we feel tense and anxious" (p.10). Most of us are too busy with ‘the outside of our world' and we neglect ‘our inside world'. Stroebel was asked by a child, "How old will I be when my body starts to fall apart?" (p.7). The question